Minor problems

Exceptions to the patterns for:

consonants   c/k,  f,   g,  j,   m,  n,   r,  t, w  and se for
 long vowels a-e, i-e, u-e, ou and the blends ar and air,
short vowels a, e, i, o and uendings and prefixes and assorted minor irregularities

The spelling of the C/K-sound is governed by 10 different rules.
They all have some exceptions   (at least 104 between them).

1.)  8 words do not use k for the K-sound before e or i (like keep, kept, kid):
         ache, architect, bronchial, chemical,  orchestra, orchid,  scheme, quay;

2.) 18 words do not use c before a, o and u, as cat, cod and cup do):
anchor, chameleon chaos, character, chasm, cholesterol, chorus,
         mechanical,  psychological,  school; 
         kaleidoscope, kangaroo, karate, kayak;
         bouquet, queue, quoit, turquoise.

3.)  6 words do not use ck after a short vowel, at the end of a short word,
like  deck and duck:  mac, sac,  rec,   trek,  yak,   cheque.

4.)  5 words do not use k after a long vowel, as in ‘leak’ or ‘peek‘:
antique,   boutique,   technique,   unique,   opaque.

5.)  8 words do not spell the final K-sound with at the end of multi-
syllable words, (e.g. comic, maniac):
attack,  barrack,  ransack,  rucksack,  shuttlecock,
kayak, anorak, stomach.

6.)  10 words do not use just c  before a consonant, (e.g. clip, crane, cactus):
         chlorine, Christmas, chrome, chrysalis, chrysanthemum, technical,
cockney, cocktail,    mackerel [macrel], chocolate [choclat].

7.)  10 words do not use k  after a consonant, (e.g. ankle, dark,  dusk):
disc,   mollusc, circle, uncle ;
           conquer, marquee,  mosquito,   mosque, picturesque ;  monarch.

8.)  21 words do not use ck after a short, stressed medial vowel
(e.g. racket, cricket, rocket, bucket):
         crocodile, decade, documents, executive, recognise, record, second,
secular, vacuum;
accurate, occupy, piccolo, soccer, succulent, tobacco;
echo, mechanism;   chequered, lacquer,  liquor.

9.)  4 words do not spell the KW-sound with qu as in queen:
acquaint,   acquire,   acquit,     choir.

10.) 14 words do not spell the KS-sound simply with x (e.g. exit, tax, taxi).
         accelerate, accent, accept, access, eccentric, success, succeed,   accident;
exceed, excellent, except, excess, excite;       exhibition.

The F-sound (fluff) is spelt unpredictably in 43 words.

 alphabet elephant pamphlet phone siphon  rough draught
 amphibian emphasise phantom photograph sophisticated  tough  laugh
 asphyxiate graph pharaoh phrase sphere  slough  
catastrophe Joseph phase physics symphony enough  
 cellophane nephew pheasant physiological triumph    
 decipher nymph phenomenon prophet trophy   cough  
 dolphin orphan philosophy sapphire typhoon  trough  

Hard G-sound

  marked hard g   unmarked hard g  redundant markings
  before e, i and   before e, i and y  of hard g
  dinghy   anger begin  ghastly
  gherkin   eager corgi  ghost
  spaghetti   finger giddy  ghoulish
  disguise   fishmonger giggle  yoghurt
  guerrillas   forget gild  
  guess   gear gills  guarantee
  guest   geese gilt  guard
  guide   get girder  catalogue
  guillotine   geyser girdle  colleague
  guilt   hamburger girl  dialogue
  guinea-pig   hunger give  epilogue
  guitar   linger longitude  fatigue
  guy   target    league
  plague* [plaig]   tiger gymkhana  meringue
  rogue*   [roag]   together    synagogue
  vague* [vaig]      tongue

* The ue endings here serve to indicate a long vowel before g,
as well as indicating a hard g.

The J-sound is spelt unpredictably before  e, i  or y..
     At the end and in the middle of words, it is spelt almost invariably
as in cage, agent and engine, but this pattern has 10 exceptions too.

JE = ge JI = gi / gy   JE = je JI = ji   10 exceptions to medial
gem giant   jealous Jew    and final ge
general gin   jeans jewel      
generation ginger   jeep     adjective spinach
generous gipsy/ gypsy   jeer jiffy   inject sandwich
genie giraffe   jelly jig   majestic  
genius     jerk jigsaw   object  
gentle gym   jersey jilt   objection  
genuine gyp   jest jingle   project  
geography     jet jive   reject  
geranium gyroscope   jettison     subject  
germ     jetty        

The M-sound (mum) has 17 unpredictable spellings.

 bomb crumb dumb lamb limb numb
 plumber succumb thumb tomb [toom] womb [woom]  
 autumn column condemn damn hymn solemn

The N-sound (nun) has 34 unpredictable spellings.

 knack knob gnash  determine gone
 knave knobbly gnat  discipline scone
 knead knock gnaw  famine shone
 knee knot gnome  feminine  
 kneel know    genuine *  
 knew   foreign  heroine  
 knife knuckle sovereign  imagine  
 knight      masculine  
 knit   pneumonia  medicine  
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